Vol 50, No 2 (2022)

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Full Issue


The role of deferred stenting in the treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Azarov A.V., Glezer M.G., Zhuravlev A.S., Babunashvili A.M., Semitko S.P., Rafaeli I.R., Kovalchuk I.A., Kamolov I.K., Masaeva D.Z., Ioseliani D.G.



Background: There have been a big number of studies assessing the efficacy of delayed coronary artery stenting (DCAS) in the prevention of no-reflow microvasculature injury compared to the standard immediate coronary artery stenting (ICAS) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the results of these studies are contradictory in a lot of ways.

Aim: To summarize studies on the assessment of DCAS in the prevention of no-reflow compared to the standard ICAS.

Materials and methods: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and eLIBRARY.RU databases. The analysis included 17 studies with a total sample of 3505 patients. The comparative analysis included angiography-based endpoints – prevalence of no-reflow (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, TIMI < 3 and myocardial blush grade, MBG < 2, corrected TIMI frame count, CTFC) and clinical endpoints of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), recurrent myocardial infarction and recurrent revascularization. In addition, the analysis included the assessment of ST-elevation resolution, left ventricular ejection fraction values in the delayed post-intervention period and between-group differences.

Results: The no-reflow phenomenon was significantly less frequent in the DCAS groups for the following parameters: epicardial flow TIMI < 3 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49–2.69; p < 0.00001; I² = 16%), myocardial perfusion MBG < 2 (OR 4.69; 95% CI 1.98–11.14; p = 0.0005; I² = 59%), CTFC (mean difference (MD) 10.29; 95% CI 0.96–19.62; p = 0.03; I² = 96%). The analysis of secondary endpoints showed that MACE were less frequent in the DCAS groups (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.04–1.60; p = 0.02; I² = 42%), the difference becoming more significant in the studies with high initial thrombotic burden (TTG ≥ 3) (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.28–2.62; p = 0.0009; I² = 41%). The most clinically significant decrease of the MACE rate was found in 5 studies (n = 656) with high initial thrombotic burden (TTG ≥ 3) and mean time to repeated intervention from 4 to 7 days (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.86–5.32; p < 0.0001; I² = 0%). The reverse trend for a benefit in the ICAS group was observed in the studies with a high initial thrombotic burden (TTG ≥ 3) and mean time to recurrent intervention of ≤ 48 hours (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.30–1.19; p = 0.14; I² = 20%). The ICAS and DCAS groups did not differ in overall mortality (p = 0.31), cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.49), repeated revascularization (p = 0.66), and ST resolution of > 70% (p = 0.65). In the DCAS groups, there was an obvious trend to lower incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction (OR 1.28; 95% CI 0.95–1.73; p = 0.10; I² = 0%), as well as to higher myocardial mass during the deferred analysis of left ventricular ejection fraction (OR -0.79; 95% CI -1.61 – -0.04; p = 0.06; I² = 36%).

Conclusion: Deferred coronary artery stenting is an effective method for prevention of no-reflow. In patients with extended coronary thrombosis (TTG ≥ 3) and STEMI, the DCAS technique with time to recurrent intervention of 4 to 7 days decreases the probability of MACE compared to that with immediate stenting of the index coronary artery.

Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2022;50(2):77-93
pages 77-93 views

The influence of clinical and medical history factors and anti-thrombotic therapy on the prognosis in patients with atrial fibrillation and myocardial infarction

Pereverzeva K.G., Agaltsova N.P., Tishkina I.E., Shopina C.S., Kosolapova Y.O., Figol A.K., Yakushin S.S.


Aim: To assess an impact of clinical and medical history factors and antithrombotic therapy on the prognosis in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) admitted to the cardiology in-patient clinic for myocardial infarction (MI).

Materials and methods: This was a retro-prospective study. Two hundred and fifty six (256) patients with AF plus MI (median age 71.0 [65.0; 79.3] years; men, 143 (55.8%)) were included into the retrospective part of the study in 2018–2019. Data on their clinical and medical history particulars, as well as on antithrombotic therapy were collected from their medical files. Nineteen (19) [13; 25] months after the index event (MI), telephone contact was made with patients or their relatives in order to assess the patient's life status, as well as record the frequency of non-fatal MI and cerebral strokes (MI). Contact was established with 253 patients. The completeness of the sample coverage is 99.0%.

Results: During the follow-up after discharge from the hospital, 29.6% (n = 75) of patients died, 40.7% (n = 103) of patients reached the composite endpoint (CЕ), which included deaths, non-fatal MI and brain strokes.

The patients who died, compared to those who survived, were older (77.0 [62.0; 82.0] vs 68.0 [62.0;76.7] years, respectively, p < 0.001), with a smaller proportion of men (44.0% vs 61.2%, respectively, p = 0.012). They were also more likely to have had type 2 diabetes mellitus (50.7% vs 37.1%, p = 0.04) and the history of acute stroke (24.0% vs 8.4%, p < 0.001), and less likely to have had percutaneous coronary intervention (48.0% vs 64.0%, p < 0.001). Serum creatinine levels in those who have died were higher than in the surviving patients (114.0 [95.0; 139.0] mmol/l vs 99.5 [85.0; 120.0] mmol/l, p < 0.001).

The patients who have achieved CE, compared to those who have not, were older (75.0 [67.0; 81.0] vs 65.0 [50.0; 82.0] years, respectively, p < 0.001), with a smaller proportion of men (48.5% vs 61.3%, respectively, p = 0.045), higher proportion of patients with past history of stroke (20.4% vs 8.0%, p = 0.005) and fewer patients who had underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (52.4% vs 66.0%, p < 0.03).

There was no significant association between the administration of anti-platelet agents and/or oral anticoagulants and outcomes in the patients with AF and MI.

Conclusion: In the patients with AF and MI, a higher death risk and achievement of CE were significantly associated with age and a history of stroke. The use of anti-platelet agents and oral anticoagulants in various combinations had no significant impact on the outcomes in this patient group, which is likely related to small duration of the follow-up and small patient sample.

Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2022;50(2):94-102
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Prevalence of endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular stiffness in patients with solid malignancies

Andreeva O.V., Semenov N.N., Shchekochikhin D.Y., Novikova A.I., Potemkina N.A., Ozova M.A., Kuli-Zade Z.A., Levina V.D., Shmeleva A.A., Poltavskaya M.G.


Background: Endothelial dysfunction is recognized as one of the early markers of cardiovascular disorders. It is supposed to be a potential predictor of cardiovascular complications in patients receiving adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Aim: To estimate the prevalence of endothelial dysfunction in solid cancer patients compared to that in individuals without any malignancies.

Materials and methods: This observational study included 74 patients with solid malignancies, mostly gastrointestinal. Prior to polychemotherapy, all patients were examined for endothelial function of small and large arteries (AngioScan-01, Fiton, Russia) and peripheral artery stiffness (pulse wave contour analysis and occlusion test). The results were compared with those of the Russian population trials of endothelial dysfunction – Meridian-RO (Ryazan region) and trial in the rural population of the Krasnodar region.

Results: Compromised vasodilation and smaller arteries tone were found in 64.9% (48/74) of the cancer patients, while impaired vasodilation of larger muscular arteries was present in 94.6% (70/74) of the patients. According to the Meridian-RO trial in the Ryazan region, endothelial dysfunction had been found in 51.2% (n = 341) of women and 52.4% (n = 300) of men, whereas the Krasnodar regional population data had shown it in 68.4% (n = 353) of women and 71.7% (n = 253) of men.

Conclusion: The prevalence of endothelial dysfunction in the patients with solid malignancies, who have not undergone any chemo- or radiation therapy, is significantly higher than in the population of comparable age, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and comorbidities. No significant increase of vascular stiffness was identified.

Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2022;50(2):103-110
pages 103-110 views

CYP2C19 gene polymorphism and its impact on the long-term prognosis after myocardial infarction

Solodun M.V., Yakushin S.S., Moseichuk K.A., Filippov E.V.


Background: Despite advanced in interventional and medical treatment, mortality after myocardial infarction (MI) remains high, which necessitates the search for predictors of poor outcome. An association between the gene CYP2C19 alleles with lower functional activity and the rates of cardiovascular events has been found. In a number of studies, negative impact of the *2 and *3 alleles of this polymorphic gene on the post-infarction course was shown. However, in most of these studies the patients were followed up from 3 months to 1 year.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism (*2, *3) on the long-term prognosis in patients with a history of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Materials and methods: This open-label prospective two-center study included 145 patients aged 45 to 75 years with a history of STEMI. For 1 year from STEMI on, all the patients were taking medications recommended for outcome improvement, such as statins, clopidogrel as a component of dual antiplatelet therapy, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The outcomes were assessed at 12 months by the endpoints of cardiovascular death and recurrent non-fatal MI, and at 5 years by the endpoints of overall mortality and recurrent non-fatal MI.

Results: During one year of the follow up, 7 of 145 patients (4.8%) died from cardiovascular causes. Recurrent MI occurred in 8.3% (n = 12) of the patients. The carriers of *1*2 and *1*3 genotypes of the polymorphic CYP2C19 gene were 3.27-fold more likely to experience recurrent MI within 1 year, compared to the carriers of other genotypes (relative risk = 3.27 [95% confidence interval 1.03; 10.36], p = 0.03). After 5 years of the follow up, this association has disappeared. No influence of the assessed polymorphisms on overall and cardiovascular mortality was found (p > 0.05). One hundred and seven (107) patients were followed up for 5 years; 14 (13.0%) of them died, other 15 patients (14.0%) had recurrent MIs.

Conclusion: *2 and *3 alleles of the polymorphic CYP2C19 gene responsible for the metabolism of clopidogrel, are risk factors of an unfavorable 12-month outcome after STEMI. Subsequently, the influence of the CYP2C19 gene polymorphism on the outcomes evades and is not associated with a 5-year prognosis. To improve post-STEMI outcomes at 1 year, it is necessary to implement the earliest personalized approached to antiplatelet treatment based on the results of the CYP2C19 gene polymorphism analysis.

Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2022;50(2):111-116
pages 111-116 views


Simultaneous endovascular "edge-to-edge" clipping of the mitral valve leaflets and closure of the left atrial appendage in a high surgical risk patient

Semitko S.P., Asadov D.A., Rogatova A.N., Stepanov A.V., Mesyats N.S., Pak N.L., Sandodze T.S., Fomenko V.V., Kamolov I.K., Pankov A.N., Zakharova O.V., Azarov A.V., Chernysheva I.E., Ioseliani D.G.


Mitral regurgitation is one of the most common valvular heart diseases, with the gold standard of its treatment being an open surgical intervention. However, it is not always performed in patients with a high surgical risk. Atrial fibrillation is a frequent companion of mitral valve regurgitation. It significantly increases the risk of ischemic strokes and systemic thromboembolism and required the administration of anticoagulants. Long-term use of anticoagulants entails an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications. Surgical endovascular closure of the left atrial appendage allows for reduction of the risks both of embolic and hemorrhagic complications.

This paper presents a clinical case of the first in Russia successful simultaneous endovascular remodeling of the mitral valve by “edge-to-edge” leaflet clipping and closure of the left atrial appendage with an Amplatzer Amulet occluder. This was an 85-year old patient with advanced mitral regurgitation, who was not considered a candidate for an open surgery due to his high surgical risk. The severity of the patient’s condition was related to atrial fibrillation, rectal cancer and severe anemia. The patient underwent simultaneous sequential clipping of the mitral valve leaflets and closure of the left atrial appendage. Control trans-esophageal echocardiography showed a significant decrease in the mitral regurgitation grade. There were no complications during the hospital stay and in the early postoperative period.

The lack of convincing data and research makes it impossible to delineate clear indications and contraindications for the combination of two procedures within one surgical session. However, simultaneous endovascular clipping of the mitral valve leaflets and an occluder implantation into the left atrial appendage may become the method of choice in the treatment of patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation, prevention of embolic and hemorrhagic complications in high risk comorbid patients.

Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2022;50(2):117-126
pages 117-126 views

Worsening of a progressive interstitial lung disease in a patient with adult Still's disease after a novel coronavirus infection

Strutynskaya A.D., Karnaushkina M.A., Ovsyannikov D.Y., Filippov S.A., Tyurin I.E.


Adult Still's disease is a rare systemic disorder of unknown etiology. Its course is often complicated by interstitial pneumonia and fulminant hepatitis. Published data have indicated some common mechanisms of systemic inflammation in patients with autoimmune disorders and SARS-COV-19. We present a clinical case of a 74-year old female patient with a long standing, slowly progressive Still’s disease, who developed “honeycomb lung” and severe liver injury as major syndromes after a novel coronavirus infection. Within 10 months, she developed increasing dyspnea, progressive fibrous pulmonary abnormalities with formation of a "honeycomb lung" and signs of liver failure. Due to late medical referral, these symptoms have led to the patient’s death. According to the literature, lung tissue abnormalities that persist after a new coronavirus infection in patients with autoimmune disorders can be both a manifestation of residual post-covid injury and a systemic disease-associated lung injury with COVID-19-triggered progression. By this clinical example, we intended to illustrate that the key to a correct diagnosis is multiple organ damage persisting after a novel coronavirus infection irrespective of the severity of the coronavirus lung injury. Such symptoms indicate the need to assess immunological markers to exclude an autoimmune disease exacerbation or onset. Clinicians should aim at rapid diagnosis and timely initiation of specific therapy.

Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2022;50(2):127-132
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The favorable outcome of subsequent pregnancy in a patient with a history of obstetric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

Prokopenko E.I., Guryeva V.M.


Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a severe life-threatening disease associated with uncontrolled activation of alternative complement pathway. Obstetric aHUS, which develops in pregnant women and puerperas, is characterized by a particularly severe course with multiple organ failure, high death risk and end-stage renal disease. The prognosis of patients with obstetric aHUS has changed dramatically after the introduction of eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody to C5 complement component, into clinical practice. With timely initiation of the complement blocking therapy, the patients would not only survive, but also completely restore the function of the affected organs. Naturally, the question arises on the possibility of repeated pregnancies in women with previous obstetric aHUS and on the strategy of pregnancy management.

The paper describes a clinical case of successful treatment with eculizumab for obstetric aHUS in the third trimester of the first pregnancy in a young and previously healthy woman, and the management of her second pregnancy. A 23-year old woman at 35-36 weeks of her first pregnancy developed the clinical picture of obstetric thrombotic microangiopathy, which was interpreted as a manifestation of severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. However, after an emergency surgical delivery, the patient's condition continued to deteriorate despite the plasma exchange procedure. After exclusion of the other causes of thrombotic microangiopathy, aHUS was diagnosed and treatment with eculizumab was started, which resulted in complete recovery. No aHUS-associated mutations were identified. The complement inhibitor treatment was discontinued after 12 months. Four years after the first birth, the patient had a second pregnancy after preconception planning. During pregnancy, the patient was closely monitored for a timely identification of potential complications and had prevention of placental complications with acetylsalicylic acid and low molecular weight heparin. No aHUS recurrence and/or other complications were observed, and the patient did not require treatment with eculizumab during pregnancy. Elective caesarean section was performed at 39 week of gestation. A healthy boy was born with a bodyweight of 3370 g, a height of 50 cm, and Apgar score 8-9.

In women with obstetric aHUS history, a favorable outcome of repeated pregnancies is possible, in some cases even without any prophylactic use of complement-blocking therapy, provided that with complete remission of aHUS has been achieved, with close monitoring during gestation and prevention of placenta-associated complications.

Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2022;50(2):133-138
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Acute arthritis associated with COVID-19

Taradin G.G., Kugler T.E., Malovichko I.S., Kononenko L.V.


Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is usually characterized by respiratory symptoms, but can have a wide range of clinical manifestations. The growing interest is focusing on the short-term and long-term immune-mediated sequelae triggered by the COVID-19. One of these complications is post-infectious arthritis, classified by some authors as reactive. This paper summarizes and analyzes 25 clinical cases of COVID-19-associated acute arthritis that have been published from January 2020 to November 2021. The mean age of the patients was 46 ± 14 years, with the disease being more prevalent in men than in women. Joint lesions were mono- or polyarticular, with predominant involvement of the joints of the lower extremities. HLA-B27 antigen was determined in 13 of 25 patients and was found in 30% of cases. Like many other viral diseases, the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 caused by coronavirus can act as a causative agent or a trigger in the development of inflammatory arthritis in predisposed individuals. The post-infectious arthritis should be differentiated from diseases that can manifest with a similar clinical presentation, which requires a complex of laboratory and instrumental studies. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticosteroids are successfully used in the treatment. The number of cases of post-COVID-19-arthritis is increasing, which urges further studies of its pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment regimens.

Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2022;50(2):139-148
pages 139-148 views

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