The prevalence rate of hypopituitarism in patients with pituitary macroadenomas with various hormonal activities

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Abstract

Rationale: According to the recent epidemiological studies, prevalence of pituitary tumors amounts to 1 per 865 to 2688 adults. The prevalence rates of hypopituitarism in pituitary macroadenomas are highly variable and comprise 37% to 85% among newly diagnosed non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). There is virtually no data on the prevalence of hypopituitarism in the cohort of newly diagnosed macroadenomas secreting prolactin and somatotropic hormone.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of hypopituitarism in patients with pituitary macroadenomas with various hormonal activities and to identify its potential risk factors.

Materials and methods: We analyzed data from 293 patients with pituitary macroadenomas with various hormonal activities: NFPA (n = 121), prolactinomas (n = 59), and somatotropinomas (n = 113). The patients had been examined before any treatment was commenced.

Results: The prevalence rate of hypopituitarism was 59/121 (39.9%) among the patients with NFPA, 18/59 (27.3%) among those with prolactinomas, and 19/113 (14%) among those with somatotropinomas (р < 0.001). The symptoms of chiasmal compression and chiasmal syndrome were significantly more prevalent in the patients with hypopituitarism, than in those without it in all subgroups. The relative risk of hypopituitarism in the patients with chiasmal compression was 2.10 for NFPA (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-2.95, р=0.003), 1.667 for prolactinomas (95% CI 1.292.18, р = 0.005), and 1.45 for somatotropinomas (95% CI 1.56-2.48, р = 0.001). The relative risk of hypopituitarism in the patients with chiasmal syndrome was 1.66 for NFPA (95% CI 1.26-2.18, р=0.009), 2.08 for prolactinomas (95% CI 1.602.69, р = 0.001), and 1.97 for somatotropinomas (95% CI 1.56-2.48, р = 0.005). The NFPA subgroup had the highest rate of hypothyroidism (36/59, 61.0%), whereas the prolactinoma subgroup had the highest rate of secondary hypogonadism (34/59, 57.6%); however, hypogonadism is one of the manifestations of persistent pathological hyperprolactinemia typical for prolactinomas. In the somatotropinoma subgroup, secondary hypothyroidism was found in 11/19 (57.9%) of the patients. Conclusion: Identification of hypopituitarism before any treatment depended on the type of hormonal activity of a pituitary tumor and was most frequent in NFPA. The risk factors for hypopituitarism were chiasmal compression, chiasmal syndrome, vertical diameter of the pituitary tumor, and its volume. Secondary adrenal insufficiency, being the most hazardous component of hypopituitarism, manifested most rarely.

About the authors

Yu. G. Krivosheeva

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Author for correspondence.
Email: yulya.k.89@inbox.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2061-5235

Yulia G. Krivosheeva - Research Fellow, Department of Therapeutic Endocrinology.

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110.

Tel.: +7 (916) 470 60 41.

Russian Federation

I. A. Ilovayskaya

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Email: irena.ilov@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3261-7366

Irena A. Ilovayskaya - MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Leading Research Fellow, Department of Therapeutic Endocrinology; Professor, Course of Special Endocrinology, Chair of Endocrinology, Postgraduate Training Faculty.

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110.

Tel.: +7 (916) 677 26 45.

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2021 Krivosheeva Y.G., Ilovayskaya I.A.

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