DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR ADAPTING THE SIZE OF LAPAROTOMY TO TOPOGRAPHIC-ANATOMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE ABDOMEN OF PATIENTS WITH SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION

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Abstract

Background: Optimization of the size of the surgical access exerts a positive effect on recovery dynamics. The size of median laparotomy in operations for small bowel obstruction is usually determined without consideration of specifics of the abdominal cavity anatomy of the patient. Aim: To improve the results of treatment of patients with acute small bowel obstruction by adapting the parameters of the median laparotomy to constitutional characteristics of the patient.
Materials and methods: The results of treatment of 101 patients with acute small bowel obstruction were analyzed. In 49 patients of the group I, laparotomy was performed with the newly developed method to determine the size of laparotomy. Fifty two patients of the group II were treated at the time when the method was still in the process of development. To identify optimal parameters of the laparotomy, we performed anatomical experiments in 90 cadavers with dolicho-, mesoand brachymorphic constitution. Results: During the anatomical experiments, we found that in individuals with dolychomorphic constitution, the average depth of the abdominal cavity amounted to 58.07% of the distance between the upper anterior iliac spines, in those with mesomorphic body build, this parameter was 42%, and in individuals with brachymorphic constitution, 37.67% of this distance. Based on the analysis of surgical accessibility parameters, we found that the optimal length of median laparotomy in individuals with dolichomorphic body build was 63.877% of the distance between the front upper iliac spines, in mesomorphic ones, 46.2%, and in brachymorphic, 41.437% of this distance. The described method of determination of the surgical incision length was applied in 49 patients from the group I. The average size of laparotomic incision was 121.74 ± 10.4 mm. The use of the proposed method for determination of the length of surgical incision allowed for reduction of the mean duration of hospitalization from 13.32 ± 3.4 to 10.02 ± 2.1 hospital days. On average, patients from group I could defecate without stimulation one day earlier than those from group II, with abdominal pain intensity being much lower.
Conclusion: A differentiated approach to laparotomy depending on the constitution of a patient with acute small bowel obstruction allows to reduce operational trauma and improve the recovery dynamics.

About the authors

D. G. Amarantov

Perm State Medical University named after academician E.A. Vagner, Perm

Author for correspondence.
Email: svetlam1@yandex.ru
Amarantov Dmitriy Georgievich – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Chair of Normal, Topographic and Clinical Anatomy, Operative Surgery Russian Federation

N. A. Fedorova

Perm Regional Hospital, s. Kultaevo, Permskiy rayon, Permskiy kray

Email: svetlam1@yandex.ru
Fedorova Natal'ya Anatol'evna – Surgeon, Deputy Chief Physician in Medical Operations Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2015 Amarantov D.G., Fedorova N.A.

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