Social and demographic characteristics, features of disease course and treatment options of inflammatory bowel disease in Russia: results of two multicenter studies

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Abstract

Background: Epidemiological studies  performed in different countries  have identified a number  of trends  that  allow to predict  the problems  related to the  prevalence  of inflammatory  bowel  diseases  (IBD),  their  severity  and  healthcare resources utilization. Aim:  To  present   comparative   results of two large epidemiological  studies of IBD in the Russian Federation (RF), i.e. ESCApe and ESCApe-2. Materials     and     methods:     Two    multicenter cross-sectional cohort studies with a similar design were performed  at three-year interval. The studies had the common aim: to identify social and demographic and clinical particulars of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) in RF, as well as treatment options. Twenty (20) centers of gastroenterology from 17 RF regions participated in the ESCApe (2010–2011) and 8 centers from 7 RF regions in the ESCApe-2 study (2013–2014). Results: The ESCApe study included 1797 patients (1254 UC and 543 CD), whereas   the   ESCApe-2  included   1000  patients (667 UC and 333 CD). Patient demographic and social characteristics: In both  studies, female: male ratio was similar in UC and CD. Patients’ age was almost identical: in UC, median  age was 38 years and 40 years in ESCApe and ESCApe-2, respectively; in CD the  corresponding  values were  36 and 35 years. In ESCApe, the peak UC onset was at the age of 21 to 40 years, whereas in CD it was shifted towards younger age (22.5% of the patients  manifested before 20 years) and the peak incidence was in three age groups (below 20 years, 21 to 30 and 31 to 40 years).  A statistically significant difference between CD and  UC was found  only in the  age group  of 11 to 20 years (22.5% vs. 13.6%, respectively, p < 0.01). In ESCApe-2, median age of disease onset in UC and CD was approximately 30 years. In both  studies, urban:rural ratio for UC and CD was 4:1. In ESCApe, the proportion of current  smokers among  CD patients  was almost  two-fold  higher than  among  those  with  UC (15.6  and  8.8%,  respectively, p < 0.001); the same trend was found in ESCApe-2 (15 and 7.3%, p < 0.001). Socioeconomic characteristics of patients in both studies were similar: 50 to 60% were at work (professional occupation and income levels were not studied); in ESCApe 30.9% of UC patients and 40.9% of CD patients had legal disability due  to various reasons  (including that related to UC and CD in 12,6 and 14.9%, respectively), whereas in ESCApe-2 the respective proportions  were  35.7 and  51.1%.  Clinical characteristics of patients: The time from the  first UC symptoms to diagnosis  was similar in both  studies  (median, 5 months  in ESCApe and 4 months  in ESCApe-2); in CD patients  these parameters were significantly different in both studies (12 vs. 1 month). As for the severity of the disease, the UC patients  in ESCApe had  mild disease  in 16%, moderate in 53%, and severe in 31%, whereas the respective proportions among  the  CD patients  were 21, 44, and  35%. In ESCApe-2, there were no patients  with severe disease;  mild and  moderate UC were  diagnosed  in 51.3 and  46.6% of the  patients, respectively, and mild and moderate CD, in 52.3 and 47.3%. The frequency of left-side UC was similar: 38% in ESCApе and 34% in ESCApе-2. Proctitis was more frequent in the  first study  (33 vs. 11%, p < 0.01), and  total UC was more frequent  in the second  study (29 vs. 55%, p < 0.02). There were no significant differences between ESCApe and ESCApe-2 in the main CD localizations: terminal ileitis was seen  in 31.3 and 35.4% of the  patients,  respectively,  ileocolitis in 33.4 and 37.8%, colitis in 25.6 and 32.1%. The upper gastrointestinal involvement In ESCApе was found 4.4%, and mixed involvement  in 5.3%. In both studies, extra-intestinal  manifestations were more frequent  in CD, than  in UC: in ESCApe, 33.1% and 23% (р < 0.05), and in ESCApe-2 in 41.7 and 29.4%, respectively   (р < 0.05).   Peripheral   arthropathies were  most  frequent. Ankylosing spondylitis  was found in CD only, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, only in UC. Aphthous  stomatitis  was significantly more prevalent in CD in both studies. There were no significant differences in all other extra-intestinal symptoms  (eye and skin involvement). Treatment characteristics: Treatment options before the  study entry, as well as at the  study inclusion visit were analyzed. In ESCApe, the majority of the patients  had not been given any treatment before the study entry (49.1% with UC and 40.5% with CD). Three years later  the  situation  was changing: in ESCApe-2, the  proportion of treatment-naïve patients was 2.5 to 3-fold lower (15.3% with UC and 14.4% with CD), which was most probably related to increasing  awareness  of physicians. Before the study entry, most  patients  (40 to 70%) had  been treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Before the  second  study,  the  patients   were  more  frequently  treated with  glucocorticosteroids (GCS), immunosuppressors and  genetically  engineered biological agents  (GEBA),  but  with no significant differences  from the  first study. 5-ASA prevailed also  among  the  agents  that  were  administered during  the  inclusion visits in both  studies  (80 to 90% UC patients  and  about  70% of CD patients). Compared   to  ESCApe,  in  ESCApe-2  there   was a trend  towards  lower rate of GCS administration in UC and CD, but the differences did not reach the significance level. It may be explained  by the absence of severe IBD types in ESCApe-2. In ESCApe, immunosuppressors were rarely used (in 14.4% of the UC patients  and in 26.8% of the CD patients); however, in ESCApe-2 there were administered more  frequently: up to 35.9% of the  UC patients and 55.1% of the CD patients  (р < 0.01 for both cases). It was unknown  if immunosuppressors were used as monotherapy or in combination with GCS. Three years later, the rate of GEBA administration was also higher, but  this increase  was significant only in CD: 28.3%  in ESCApe-2 vs. 9.2% in ESCApe (р < 0.01). According to the results of ESCApe, in the UC patients steroid resistance was seen in 23% and steroid dependency in 21%, whereas in the CD patients these values were 24 and 27%, respectively. In ESCApe-2 these  parameters were not assessed. Conclusion:  Both studies  showed  a  number   of patterns coinciding  with  the  world  trends,  such as age and gender  distribution  of UC and CD patients, age at manifestation, the proportion of urban to rural residents, smoking status, prevalence and types of extra-intestinal  symptoms. Unlike in European countries, moderate and severe forms of UC with extensive involvement are prevalent in RF. Low prevalence  of mild and limited types of IBD is to be explained by underdiagnosis. Of note is the high proportion of patients  with UC and CD treated with 5-ASA, although in CD these  agents  have demonstrated low efficacy. The rates of immunosuppressors  and GEBA administration significantly increased  in the second  study, most likely, due to the  implementation of a  system  of educational measures. Nevertheless, the rate of GEBA use in IBD remains low, which is to be related to their insufficient availability. In total, steroid resistance / steroid dependency rate amount  to almost half of UC and CD cases. In general, some positive changes  in the patient  management are  obvious  in the  second study. However, monitoring  these  changes  over time could only be possible if similar studies would be performed at regular intervals.

About the authors

E. A. Belousova

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Author for correspondence.
Email: eabelous@yandex.ru

Elena A. Belousova – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; Head of the Chair of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Training Faculty.

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110.

Tel.: +7 (499) 199 95 58; +7 (903) 561 77 55. 

Russian Federation

D. I. Abdulganieva

Kazan State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Diana I. Abdulganieva – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Chair of Hospital Therapy.

49 Butlerova ul., Kazan, 420012.

Russian Federation

O. P. Alexeeva

The Nizhny Novgorod Regional Clinical Hospital n.a. N.A. Semashko

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Ol’ga P. Alexeeva – MD, PhD, Professor, Director of Volga Center of Gastroenterology.

190 Rodionova ul., Nizhny Novgorod, 603126.

Russian Federation

S. A. Alexeenko

The Far Eastern State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Sergey A. Alexeenko – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Chair of Hospital Therapy.

35 Karla Marksa ul., Khabarovsk, 680000.

Russian Federation

A. Yu. Baranovsky

St. Petersburg State University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Andrey Yu. Baranovsky – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Research, Clinical and Educational Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

7–9 Universitetskaya naberezhnaya, Saint Petersburg, 199034.

Russian Federation

E. Yu. Valuyskikh

State Scientific-Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Ekaterina Yu. Valuyskikh – MD, PhD, Head of Department of Therapy.

4 Timakova ul., Novosibirsk, 630117.

Russian Federation

A. O. Golovenko

GMS Clinics and Hospitals; A.I. Yevdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Alexey O. Golovenko – MD, PhD, Gastroenterologist; Assistant, Chair of Chair of Propaedeutics of Internal Diseases and Gastroenterology.

6/1 1-y Nikoloshchepovskiy per., Moscow, 121099; ; 20/1 Delegatskaya ul., Moscow, 127473.

Russian Federation

O. V. Golovenko

Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Oleg V. Golovenko – MD, PhD, Professor, Chair of Coloproctology.

2/1–1 Barrikadnaya ul., Moscow 125993.

Russian Federation

T. N. Zhigalova

North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Tat’yana N. Zhigalova – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Chair of Internal Diseases, Gastroenterology and Dietetics.

47 Piskarevsky prospekt, Saint Petersburg, 195067.

Russian Federation

O. V. Knyazev

Loginov Moscow Clinical Scientific Center, Moscow Healthcare Department

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Oleg V. Knyazev – MD, PhD, Head of Department of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

86 Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow, 111123.

Russian Federation

A. V. Kulyapin

Ufa City Clinical Hospital No. 21

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Andrey V. Kulyapin – MD, PhD, Head of Department of Coloproctology.

3 Lesnoy pr-d, Ufa, 450071.

Russian Federation

A. V. Lakhin

Lipetsk Regional Clinical Hospital

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Aleksandr V. Lakhin – MD, Head of Department of Coloproctology.

6a Moskovskaya ul., Lipetsk, 398055.

Russian Federation

M. A. Livzan

Omsk State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Maria A. Livzan – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Therapy.

12 Lenina ul., Omsk, 644099.

Russian Federation

T. G. Lubyanskaya

Regional Clinical Hospital

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Tat’yana G. Lubyanskaya – MD, PhD, Head of Department of Gastroenterology.

1 Lyapidevskogo ul., Barnaul, 656024.

Russian Federation

N. N. Nikolaeva

Krasnoyarsky State Medical University named after V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Nonna N. Nikolaeva – MD, PhD, Professor, Chair of Therapy, Institut of Postgraduate Education.

1 Partizana Zheleznyaka ul., Krasnoyarsk, 660022.

Russian Federation

N. V. Nikitina

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Natal’ya V. Nikitina – MD, PhD, Leading Research Fellow, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; Associate Professor, Chair of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Training Faculty.

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110.

Russian Federation

I. V. Nikulina

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Inna V. Nikulina – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Chair of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Training Faculty.

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110.

Russian Federation

M. F. Osipenko

Novosibirsk State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Marina F. Osipenko – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Chair of Propaedeutics of Internal Diseases.

52 Krasnyy prospekt, Novosibirsk, 630091.

Russian Federation

V. V. Pavlenko

Stavropol State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Vladimir V. Pavlenko – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Internal Diseases.

310 Mira ul., Stavropol, 355017.

Russian Federation

A. I. Parfenov

Loginov Moscow Clinical Scientific Center, Moscow Healthcare Department

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Asfold I. Parfenov – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of Pathology of the Intestine.

86 Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow, 111123.

Russian Federation

Y. E. Rogachikov

Regional Clinical Hospital No. 1 named after S.I. Sergeev

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Yuriy E. Rogachikov – MD, PhD, Head of Department of Gastroenterology.

9 Krasnodarskaya ul., Khabarovsk, 680009.

Russian Federation

I. O. Svetlova

Novosibirsk State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Irina O. Svetlova – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Chair of Therapy, Hematology and Transfusiology, Faculty for Continuing Medical Education and Professional Development.

52 Krasnyy prospekt, Novosibirsk, 630091.

Russian Federation

A. V. Tkachev

Rostov State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Aleksandr V. Tkachev – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Propaedeutics of Internal Diseases.

29 Nakhichevanskiy per., Rostov-on-Don, 344022.

Russian Federation

E. I. Tkachenko

S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Evgeniy I. Tkachenko – MD, PhD, Professor, 2nd  Chair of Therapy (Postgraduate Training).

6 Akademika Lebedeva ul., Saint Petersburg, 194044.

Russian Federation

I. L. Khalif

Ryzhikh State Scientific Center of Coloproctology

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Igor L. Khalif – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of Inflammatory and Functional Bowel Diseases.

2 Salyama Adilya ul., Moscow, 123423.

Russian Federation

E. Yu. Chashkova

Research Surgical and Traumatology Center (Irkutsk)

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Elena Yu. Chashkova – MD, PhD, Head of Department of Reconstructive Surgery.

1 Bortsov Revolyutsii ul., Irkutsk, 664003.

Russian Federation

O. B. Shchukina

Academician I.P. Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Oksana B. Shchukina – MD, PhD, Research Advisor of the Municipal Center for Diagnostics and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 31, Associate Professor, Chair of General Medical Practice.

6–8 L’va Tolstogo ul., Saint Petersburg, 197022.

Russian Federation

N. S. Yazenok

Samara Clinic No. 5

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Nadezhda S. Yazenok – MD, PhD, Head of Department of Gastroenterology and Therapy.

56 Respublikanskaya ul., Samara, 443051.

Russian Federation

A. A. Yakovlev

Rostov State Medical University

Email: fake@neicon.ru

Aleksey A. Yakovlev – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Chair of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy with the Course of Clinical Pharmacology.

29 Nakhichevanskiy per., Rostov-on-Don, 344022.

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2018 Belousova E.A., Abdulganieva D.I., Alexeeva O.P., Alexeenko S.A., Baranovsky A.Y., Valuyskikh E.Y., Golovenko A.O., Golovenko O.V., Zhigalova T.N., Knyazev O.V., Kulyapin A.V., Lakhin A.V., Livzan M.A., Lubyanskaya T.G., Nikolaeva N.N., Nikitina N.V., Nikulina I.V., Osipenko M.F., Pavlenko V.V., Parfenov A.I., Rogachikov Y.E., Svetlova I.O., Tkachev A.V., Tkachenko E.I., Khalif I.L., Chashkova E.Y., Shchukina O.B., Yazenok N.S., Yakovlev A.A.

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