Atomic force microscopy in the assessment of erythrocyte membrane mechanical properties with exposure to various physicochemical agents

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Abstract

Background: Mechanical properties of cell membranes and their structural organization are considered among the most important biological parameters affecting the functional state of the cell. Under the influence of various pathogenic factors, erythrocyte membranes lose their elasticity. The resulting changes in their biomechanical characteristics is an important, but poorly studied topic. It is of interest to study the deformation of native erythrocytes to a depth compatible with their deformation in the bloodstream.

Aim: To investigate the patterns of deep deformation and the particulars of structural organization of native erythrocyte membranes before and after their exposure to physicochemical agents in vitro.

Materials and methods: Cell morphology, nanostructure characteristics, and membrane deformation of native erythrocytes in a  solution of hemoconservative CPD/SAGM were studied with atomic force microscope NTEGRA Prima. Hemin, zinc ions (Zn2+), and ultraviolet (UV) radiation were used as modifiers. To characterize the membrane stiffness, we measured the force curves F(h), hHz (the depth to which the probe immersion is described by interaction with a homogeneous medium), and the Young's modulus values of the erythrocyte membrane.

Results: Exposure to hemin, Zn2+ and UV radiation led to transformation of the cell shape, appearance of topological defects and changes in mechanical characteristics of erythrocyte membranes. Under exposure to hemin, Young's modulus increased from 10±4  kPa to 27.2±8.6  kPa (p<0.001), exposure to Zn2+, to 21.4±8.7  kPa (p=0.002), and UV, to 18.8±5.6  kPa (p=0.001). The hHz value was 815±210  nm for the control image and decreased under exposure to hemin to 420±80 nm (p<0.001), Zn2+, to 370±90 nm (p<0.001), and UV, to 614±120 nm (p=0.001).

Conclusion: The results obtained contribute to a  deeper understanding of interaction between membrane surfaces of native erythrocytes and small vessel walls. They can be useful in clinical medicine as additional characteristics for assessment of the quality of packed red blood cells, as well as serve as a basis for biophysical studies into the mechanisms of action of oxidative processes of various origins.

About the authors

E. A. Sherstyukova

V.A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology;
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: kmanchenko@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9962-6315

Ekaterina A. Sherstyukova – PhD (in Biol.), Senior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Biophysics of Cell Membranes in Critical States, V.A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology; Assistant Professor, Chair of Medical and Biological Physics, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

25/2 Petrovka ul., Moscow, 107031

8/2 Trubetskaya ul., Moscow, 119991

Russian Federation

V. A. Inozemtsev

V.A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology

Email: va.inozemcev@physics.msu.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4693-5624

Vladimir A. Inozemtsev – Research Fellow, Laboratory of Biophysics of Cell Membranes in Critical States

25/2 Petrovka ul., Moscow, 107031

Russian Federation

A. P. Kozlov

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Email: fillnoise@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3907-080X

Aleksandr P. Kozlov – PhD (in Phys. and Math.), Associate Professor, Chair of Medical and Biological Physics

8/2 Trubetskaya ul., Moscow, 119991

Russian Federation

O. E. Gudkova

V.A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology

Email: olkagood@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9220-0138

Olga E. Gudkova – Senior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Biophysics of Cell Membranes in Critical States

25/2 Petrovka ul., Moscow, 107031

Russian Federation

V. A. Sergunova

V.A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology

Email: vika_23s82@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8425-0845

Viktoria A. Sergunova – PhD (in Biol.), Leading Research Fellow, Head of Laboratory of Biophysics of Cell Membranes in Critical States

25/2 Petrovka ul., Moscow, 107031

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2021 Sherstyukova E.A., Inozemtsev V.A., Kozlov A.P., Gudkova O.E., Sergunova V.A.

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